Native HTTP support¶
http-socket <bind> option will make uWSGI natively speak HTTP. If your
web server does not support the uwsgi protocol but is able to
speak to upstream HTTP proxies, or if you are using a service like Webfaction
or Heroku to host your application, you can use
http-socket. If you plan
to expose your app to the world with uWSGI only, use the
instead, as the router/proxy/load-balancer will then be your shield.
The uWSGI HTTP/HTTPS router¶
uWSGI includes an HTTP/HTTPS router/proxy/load-balancer that can forward requests to uWSGI workers. The server can be used in two ways: embedded and standalone. In embedded mode, it will automatically spawn workers and setup the communication socket. In standalone mode you have to specify the address of a uwsgi socket to connect to.
./uwsgi --http 127.0.0.1:8080 --master --module mywsgiapp --processes 4
This will spawn a HTTP server on port 8080 that forwards requests to a pool of 4 uWSGI workers managed by the master process.
./uwsgi --master --http 127.0.0.1:8080 --http-to /tmp/uwsgi.sock
This will spawn a HTTP router (governed by a master for your safety) that will
forward requests to the uwsgi socket
/tmp/uwsgi.sock. You can bind to
[uwsgi] http = 0.0.0.0:8080 http = 192.168.173.17:8181 http = 127.0.0.1:9090 master = true http-to = /tmp/uwsgi.sock
And load-balance to multiple nodes:
[uwsgi] http = 0.0.0.0:8080 http = 192.168.173.17:8181 http = 127.0.0.1:9090 master = true http-to = /tmp/uwsgi.sock http-to = 192.168.173.1:3031 http-to = 192.168.173.2:3031 http-to = 192.168.173.3:3031
- If you want to go massive (virtualhosting and zero-conf scaling) combine the HTTP router with the uWSGI Subscription Server.
- You can make the HTTP server pass custom uwsgi variables to workers with the
- You can use the
http-modifier1option to pass a custom modifier1 value to workers.
If your backends set the correct HTTP headers, you can use the
http-keepalive option. Your backends must either set a valid
Content-Length in each response, or you can use chunked encoding with
http-auto-chunked. Simply setting “Connection: close” is not enough.
Also remember to set “Connection: Keep-Alive” in your response. You can
automate that using the
add-header = Connection: Keep-Alive option.
Since uWSGI 2.0.16 you can use the
http11-socket may replace the
(but it doesn’t touch tcp stuff as
Once set the server will try to maintain the connection opened if a bunch of
rules are respected. This is not a smart http 1.1 parser (to avoid parsing the
whole response) but assumes the developer is generating the right headers.
http11-socket has been added to support RTSP protocol for video streaming.
HTTP auto gzip¶
http-auto-gzip option, uWSGI can automatically gzip content if the
uWSGI-Encoding header is set to gzip while
Content-Encoding are not set.
Can I use uWSGI’s HTTP capabilities in production?¶
If you need a load balancer/proxy it can be a very good idea. It will automatically find new uWSGI instances and can load balance in various ways. If you want to use it as a real webserver you should take into account that serving static files in uWSGI instances is possible, but not as good as using a dedicated full-featured web server. If you host static assets in the cloud or on a CDN, using uWSGI’s HTTP capabilities you can definitely avoid configuring a full webserver.
If you use Amazon’s ELB (Elastic Load Balancer) in HTTP mode in
front of uWSGI in HTTP mode, either a valid
Content-Length must be set
by the backend, or chunked encoding must be used, e.g., with
http-auto-chunked. The ELB “health test” may still fail in HTTP mode
regardless, in which case a TCP health test can be used instead.
In particular, the Django backend does not set
default, while most others do. If running behind ELB, either use chunked
encoding as above, or force Django to specify
Content-Length with the
ConditionalGetMiddleware in Django < 1.11)